The Belief In Al-Qadar

Explaining the fundamentals of faith The Belief In Al-Qadar Shaikh – Mohammed Saleh Alothaimeen

The Belief In Al-Qadar

Al-Qadar is Allaah’s predestination of beings according to His Foreknowledge and as necessitated by His Wisdom.

 

The Belief in Al-Qadar Comprises Four Matters:

First: The Belief that Allaah تعالى  knew every thing on the whole and in details which took place in the past and is taking or will take place in the future and forever, whether it is related to His Actions or the actions of His Ibaad ( creatures)

Second: The Belief that Allaah wrote ( everything pertaining to His knowledge) in Al-louhul Alahafoudh.88 Regarding these two aspects ( knowledge and writing) Allaah تعالى says:

 

( ألم تعلم أن الله يعلم ما فى السماء و الأرض ، إن ذلك فى كتاب إن ذلك على الله يسير) ( الحج ، 70)

 

 

Know you that Allaah knows all that is in heaven and the earth? Verily , it is (all) in the Book ( Al-luhul Almahafoudh)! Verily, that is easy for Allaah. ( Qura’an 22:70)

 

In Saheeh Muslim from the way of Abdullah bin ‘Amar bin Al’As رضى الله عنهما , Who said “: Iheard Allaah Messenge saying”:

 

” كتب الله مقادير الخلائق قبل أن يخلق السموات و الأرض بخمسين ألف سنة ” – رواه مسلم

 

 

‘Allaah had written the ordained measures ( and due proportions) of the creation , fifty-thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth”82

 

 

Third: The belief that all created things do not come to exist except by the Will of Allaah تعالى making n o difference whether it pertains to His Action or to that of the created beings. Allaah تعالى  spoke about what pertains to His actions:

 

( و ربك يخلق ما يشاء و يختار) ( القصص ، 68)

 

Verily, your Rabb creates whatever He wills and choose. ( Qura’an 28-68)

 

( يفعل ما يشاء) ( إبراهيم ، 27)

 

And Allaah does what He Wills. ( Qura’an 14:27)

 

( و هو الذى يصوركم فى الأرحام كيف يشاء) ( آل عمران، 6)

 

He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases. ( Qura’an 3:6)

 

Pertaining to the action of the created. He Allaah تعالى said:

 

( ولو شاء الله لسلطهم عليكم و فلقاتلوكم) ( النساء ، 90)

 

Had Allaah willed , He would have given them power over you , and had he had would have fought you. ( Qura’an 4:90)

 

( و لو شاء الله ما فعلوه فذرهم و ما يفترون) ( الأنعام ،137)

Had Allaah willed, they would have not done so , So leave them alone with their fabrications ( Qura’an 6:137)

 

Fourth: The belief that all beings are created by Allaah including Thawaatiha (their slaves) , their qualities and their motion. Allaah تعالى  said:

 

( و الله خالق كل شىء و هو على كل شىء وكيل) ( الزمر، 62)

 

Allaah is the Creator of all things , and He is the Wakeel ( Trustee , Disposer of affairs, Guardian, etc.) over all things. ( Qura’an 39:62)

 

 

( و حلق كل شىء فقدره تقديرا ) ( الفرقان،2)

 

And he created everything , and has measured it exactly to its due measurements. ( Qura’an 25:2)

 

He said about His prophet Ibraaheem that he told his people :

 

( و الله خلقكم و ما تعملون) ( الصافات،95-96)

 

While Allaah has created and what you make.83

 

The above description of the matters of belief in Al-Qadr does not negate that ‘abd has a mashee’ah ( will) and an ability ( Qudrah) regarding his voluntarily deed , because both Ash-Shara’a and Reality are proves that affirm these ( qualities) to him.

 

 

As for Ash-Shar’a , Allaah تعالى said about the mashee’ah ( of the ‘abd):

 

( فمن شاء إلى ربه مآبا) ( النبأ، 39)

 

So whoever wills, let him seek a place with ( or a way to ) His Rabb ( by obeying Him in this worldly life)! ( Qura’an 78:39)

 

( فأتوا حرثكم أنى شئيتم) ( البقرة ،223)

 

So go to your Harth84 when and or how you will. ( Qura’an 2:223)

 

Allaah said regarding Al-Qudrah (man’s ability:

( فاتقوا الله ما إستطتم و اسمعوا و اطيعوا) ( التغابن ،16)

 

So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can; listen and obey. ( Qura’an 64:16)

 

( لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها لها ما كسبت و عليها ما إكتسبت) ( البقرة ،286)

 

Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for teat ( good) which has earned , and he is punished for that ( evil) which he has earned. (Qura’an 2:286)

 

As to the reality aspect, every person knows that he has a meshee’ah and a qudra’ah by which he acts or relinquishes, and that he distinguishes between what he willfully carries out, like walking , and what occurs unintentionally, like tremors. However , the ‘adb will (mashee’ah) and Qudrah exist only by Allaah’s will and Ability. He تعالى said:

 

 

( لمن شاء منكم أن يستقيم * و ما تشاءون إلا أن يشاء الله رب العالمين) ( التكوير،28-29)

 

 

To whomsoever among you who wills to talk straight , and you will not unless ( it be) that Allaah Wills – the Rabb of the ‘Aalameen ( mankind, jinns and all that exist. ( Qura’an 82:29-29)

 

And since the entire universe belong to Allaah تعالى , then nothing will come to exist in His kingdom without His will.

 

Also the belief in Al-Qadr as described above, does not grant the ‘abd an argument neither for what he had abandoned from the obligatory acts nor for the acts of disobedience which he had committed. Accordingly, his justifications, by taking Al-Qadar as a pretext, invalid by the following accounts:

 

First: In Allaah saying:

 

(سيقول الذين أشركوا لو شاءالله ما أشركنا و لا آباؤنا و لا حرمنا من شىء كذلك كذب الذين من قبلهم حتى ذاقوا بأسنا قل هل عندكم من علم فتخرجوه لنا إن تتبعون إلا الظن و إن أنتم إلا تخرصون) ( الأنعام، 148)

 

 

Those who took partners (in worship) with Allaah will say: “ If Allaah had willed, we would not have taken partners ( in worship) with Him , and we would not have forbidden anything ( against His will) . Likewise belied those who were before them, (they argued falsely with Allaah’s Messengers) , till they tasted of Our Wrath. Say: “ Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us ? Verily, you follow nothing but guesses and you do nothing but lie. ( Qura’an 6:148)

 

Had there been excuse for them in Al-Qhadr , Allaah would not have inflicted punishment upon them.

 

Second : Allaah saying :

 

( رسلا مبشرين و منذرين لئلا يكون للناس على الله حجة بعد الرسل و كان الله عزيزا حكيما) ( النساء ،165)

 

 

Messengers as bearers of good as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allaah after the Messengers. Allaah is Ever All-Mighty , All-Wise . ( Qura’an 4:165)

 

 

Had AlQadar been a valid excuse for those opposing (the Messengers) , it would never be eliminated by the mere sending of the Messengers , because the opposition will occur , by Allaah’s will , even after sending them.

 

Third: The hadeeth narrated by Alee bin Abee Talib and reported by Al-Bukharee and Muslim in which the prophet Mohammed said:

 

ما منكم من أحد إلا قد كتب مقعده من النار أو الجنة فقال رجل من القوم الا نتكل يا رسو الله قال لا أعملوا فكل ميسر ثم قرأ ( فأما من أعطى و إتقى ) الآية * و فى لفظ لمسلم ” فكل ميسر لما خلق له”.

“ There is none of you but has his place either in Hell or Al-Janaah.” A man from amongst the people said “ Shall we not depend upon that (and give up doing any deeds)? He said “ Carry on doing (good deeds)  for everybody will find it easy to do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which he has been created.” (And then the prophet recited the Aayah:

 

( فأما من أعطى و إتقى) الآية.

 

As for him who gives ( in charity) and keeps his duty to Allaah and fears Him , and believe in Al-Husna85 , We will make smooth for him the path of ease ( goodness) , but he who is greedy miser and thinks himself  self-sufficient , and gives lie to Husna , We will make smooth for him the path for evil ( Qura’an 92:5-10).86

 

The Prophet Mohammed ordered to carry on doing the good deeds and forbade the dependence upon Al-Qadr.

 

Fourth: Allaah تعالى   commanded the ‘abd ( to do the lawful) and forbade upon him ( the un-lawful) and did not hold him responsible towards what he is able to do . Allaah تعالى  said:

 

( فاتقوا الله ما إستطعتم) ( التغابن،16)

Keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can. ( Qura’an 64:16)

 

( لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها) ( البقرة،268)

 

Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope. ( Qura’an 2:268)

 

If man were compelled to act, then he would be burdened with inescapable things. This is certainly false. That is why if he commits something wrong due to forgetfulness, ignorance or under compulsion m then there is no sins on him because he is excused.

 

Fifth: The Al-Qadr of Allaah تعالى  is preserved secret kept unknown until the occurrence of what is preordained . The ‘abd intention of what he does precedes his actions and thus it is not based upon a foreknowledge on his part of the Qadar of Allaah . at the time , his excuse about Al-Qadar is negated , because one can have no established proof in what he knows not.

 

Sixth: We see that man is keen to obtain what suits him from worldly matters. He does not abandon it for that which suits him not and then blame his relinquishment on Al-Qadar . Why is it then that he turns away from what benefits him from the matters of his Deen to that which causes him harm and resort to Al-Qadar for justification? Isn’t so that dealing with both matters should be one87

 

 

The following is an example that clarifies this issue: If there are two roads in front of a person : one leading to a town  filled with mischief , disorder , killing , looting , fear , hunger and all forms of sexual and moral abuse ; the second takes him to a town enjoying order , security , and quiet , abundant sustenance and good living , and which lives , honor and property are respected ; which road will you like?

 

Certainly he will take the road that takes him to the town of order and security . No sensible person would ever take the road lead to the town of chaos and fear and then take Al-Qadar as a pretext. Why is it then when it comes to the matter of the Hereafter he takes the way to Fire( Hell) instead of the way to Al-Jannaah and then use Al-Qadar as an argument?

 

Another example: We see that when a patient is ordered to take the prescribed medicine , he takes it while his self does not like it. And when is forbidden from taking the food which cause him harm, he gives it up while his self desires it. He does all of this seeking a cure and to be safe. It is rather impossible that he refrain from taking the medicine or eating the food which is harmful to him using Al-Qadar as a pretext ! Why does a man , therefore , abandon the command of allaah and His Messenger or does what Allaah and His Messengers forbid and takes Al_Qadar as evidence?

 

Seventh: If a person who takes Al-Qadar as  pretext ( to justify) what he has abandoned from Al-Wajibaat88 or what he has committed from sins, is attacked by someone who takes away his property or violates his honor and then tells him “: Do not blame me! My attack upon you was due to Allaah’s Qadar(i.e something which Allaah had preordained )” , he would not accept his argument! How came then that he does not accept Al-Qadar as pretext to justify someone’s else attack on him while he takes it as an argument for his aggression against Alla’s right?

 

It is said that Ameer Al-Mu’mineen89 Umar bin Al-Khataab ordered to cut the hand of a thief on whom the( Sahreea’ah) ruling was rightly applicable. The thief said: “ Wait O! Leader of the believers! I committed the theft by The Qadar of Allaah ( i.e he is blaming it on Al-Qadar) ‘Umar replied :” And we assuredly cut ( the hand) by no more than The Qadar of Allaah”.

 

 

The Belief In Al-Qadar Has Great Benefits, Amongst Them:

 

First: Depending upon Allaah تعالى when using the means (by which a thing is brought about) so as not to depend upon the means itself , on the grounds that every thing is preordained by Allaah un exact measures.

 

Second: Saving the person from having a high opinion of himself upon the achievement of his objective , because its attainment is a favor from Allaah تعالى in view of what He had preordained from the means which lead to what is good and successful . His conceitedness makes him forget being grateful to Allaah for this favor of His.

 

Third: Securing a state of peace and tranquility regarding what befalls the person of what befalls the person of what had been preordained by Allaah تعالى. He worries not over failing to attain what is beloved nor over the occurrence of what is disliked, because – all of this is in accordance with Al-Qadar of Allaah – to whom belongs the heavens and the earth – and it inevitable to take place. Allaah says regarding this matter:

 

( ما أصاب من مصيبة فى الأرض و لا فى أنفسكم إلا فى كتاب من قبل أن تبرأها إن ذلك على الله يسير* لكيلا تأسوا على ما فاتكم و لا تفرحوا بما آتاكم و الله لا يحب كل مختال فحور) ( الحديد، 22-23)

 

No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees( Al-lahul Mahafoidh) , before We bring it into existence , verily that is easy for Allaah. In order that you may not be sad over matters that you fail to get , nor rejoice because of that which has been given to you. And Allaah likes not prideful boasters. ( Qura’an 57:22)

 

The prophet Mohammed Said:

 

 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم :” عجبا لأمر المؤمن إن أمره كله خير و ليس ذاك لاحد إلا للمؤمن إن أصابته سراء شكر فكان خيرا له ز إن أصابته ضراء صبر فكان خيرا له” – رواه مسلم.

 

“ How amazing is the matter of the believer! There is good in every affair of his, and this is not the case with any one else except in the case of the believer: if any Sararaa90 befalls him , he gives thanks ( to Allaah) thus there is good for him on it. And if a Darraa91 befalls him , and shows resignation ( and endures it patiently) there is a good for him in it .”92

The Sects Went Astray Regarding Al-Qadar:-

 

One of them is Al-Jabriyyah[75] who assert that man is compelled to do whatever he does and that he has neither the power nor the will to act.

 

The other one is Al-Qadariyyah[76]who say that whatever man does it is entirely of his own ability and free will, and that Allaah’s Mashee’ah ( will) and Qudr’ah( Ability) has no influence on what man does.

 

 

The response to the first sect ( Al-Jabriyyah) according to Al-Shara’a and Reality:

 

As to the l-Shara’a , it is certain that Allah تعالى  has affimed n bility nd free will to the ‘abd and hs ttributed the deeds to him as well. He تعالى said:

 

( منكم من يريد الدنيا و منكم من يريد الآخرة ) ( آل عمران، 152)

 

Among you are some who desires this world and some that desires the Hereafter. ( Qura’an 3:152)

 

(و قل الحق من ربكم فمن شاء فليؤمن و من فليكفر إنا أعتدنا للظالمين نارا أحاط بهم سرادقها) ( الكهف ، 29)

 

And Say :” The truth is from your Rabb ( Allaah).” Then whosoever wills , let him believe , and whosoever wills , let him disbelieve. Verily,  We have prepared forr the Thalimeen ( polytheists and wrong-doers , etc.) a fire whose wlls will be surrounding them .( Qura’an 18:29)

 

He also said:

 

( من عمل صالحا فلنفسه و من أساء فعليها و ما ربك بظلام للعبيد ) ( فصلت ،46)

 

Whosoever does ighteous good deed it is for ( the benefit of) his own self  , whosoever does evil , it is aginst himself , nd your Rabb is not t all unjust to (His) slaves. ( Qura’an 41:46)

 

As agreed to  reality , it is known that each man is aware of the difference between his voluntary deeds like eating , drinking , selling and buying and that which befalls him against his own choice , like tremors associated with fever and like failing from a roof . In the first case he is acting by his own free will and without compulsion, while in the second situation neither he has a choice nor does he want what has befallen him.

 

The Response to the second Sect According to As-Shara’a , and Rational:

 

As to As-Shara’a , it is certain that Allaah is the Creator of everything and all things exist by His will. Allah تعالى said:

 

( لوشاء الله ما إقتتل الذين من بعدهم من بعد ما جاتهم البينات و لكن اختلفوا فمنهم من آمن و منهم من كفلر و لو شاءالله ما إقتتلوا و لكن الله يفعل ما يريد) ( البقرة، 253)

 

If Allaah had Willed, succeeding generations would not have fought against each other, after clear Aayat had come , but they differed – some of them believed and others disbelieved. If Allaah had willed , they would have not against one other, but Allaah does what He likes. ( Qura’an2:253)

 

( و لو شئنا لآتينا كل نفس هداها و لكن حق القول منى لأملأن جهنم من الجنة و الناس أجمعين)( السجدة، 13)

 

And If We had willed , surely ! We would have given evey person his guidance , but the World from Me took effect ( about evil doers), that I will fill Hell with Jinn and mankind together.( Qura’an 32:13)

 

As to rational , it is evident that the entire universe belongs to Allaah , and because man is part of this universe, consequently he belongs to Allaah. It is not the right of the possessed to dispose freely the property of the Possessor except by the latter’s leave and will.


88 Al-lauhul Almahafoudh: the preserved tablet

82 Saheeh Muslim , V.4, Hadeeth #6416

83 Ibraaheem was referring to the idols that his people used to worship: ( قال أتبعدون ما تنحتون * و الله خلقكم و ما تعملون) ( الصافات ، 95-96)  . He Ibraaheem said to His people : Worship worship you that which you ( yourselves) crave? While Allaah has created you and what you make ! ( Qura’an , signifying Aayaat 95-96 of Saarat Al-Saafaat .# 37.{TN}

84 Allaah described the wives as Harth: Tilth for their husbands . He said: ( نساؤكم حرث لكم فأتوا حرثكم أنى شئيتم) ( البقرة،223) Your wives are as a tilth for you , so go to your tilth , when or how you will. ( Qura’an 2:223). “ Go to your tilth means to have legal sexual relations with your wives.

85 Al-Husna means either the declaration of: laa ilaaha illa lah : none has the right to be worshiped except Allaah , or reward from Allaah i.e Allaah will compensate him for what he will spend in Allaah’s Way or bless him with Al-Janaah{TN}

86 See Saheeh Al-Bukharee , V.9 , Hadeeth # 642

87 Which means that he must not turn away from what benefits him and blame it on Al-Qadar.{TN}

88 Al-Wajibaat: The Obligatory matters of Deen

89 Ameer Al-Mu’mineen: The Leader of the Believers

90 Sarraa’: Prosperity, being in a well- to -do state , life of ease , success in the form of obedience to Allaah in matters of Deen

91 Daraa’: a poverty, illness , hardship , trouble , trail etc.

92 Reported by Muslim. See Saheeh  Muslim , V.4, Hadeeth #7138

[75] Al-Jabriyyah ( from the Arabic word Jabr’ Compulsion) who maintained determinism against free will.These are the followers of Jahm bin Safawan (d.128 Hj/45) their doctrine is that salvation was predetermined and that man , in effect could not work either for, nor against his salvation .According to his claim man is just like feather suspended in the air.{TN}

[76] Al-Qadriyyah , Predestinarianism , the opposite extreme to Al-Jabiryyah. The claimed that man creates his own actions by his ability and his will . “ Making “ creators other than Allaah !That is why the prophet Mohammed called them the Majoos of his Ummah , because the Majoos claim that Satan creates evil and harmful things , making  of Satan a “creator” besides Allaah . Far is Allaah above what these sects utter.

Abu Dawood related on the uthority of Abdullah bin Ummar that the prophet Mohammed sid: “ Al-Qadiryyah are the Majoos of this Ummah  , if they become ill do not visit them , and when they die do not witness them ( their funeral ) “. Shaykh Albanee said tht the hadeeth is hassan ( authentic) by way of its combined narrations. See AtTahawiyyah, P.273and As-Sunnh by ‘Abbe ‘ Asim V.1/149.{TN}

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